marți, 10 mai 2011

Arthritis

There are over 100 forms of arthritis that show the features of rheumatoid arthritis. Some of them are produced as a result of wear and tear of joints, and others appear suddenly and sometimes disappear without further treatment, while the other manifest chronicly and progressively.Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease meaning the immune system attacks different tissues of the body that become inflamed symmetrically in joints, hands, wrists, feet and ankles, but also come to affect elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, neck and jaw. It is believed to be caused by a virus or a bacterium, which has not yet been identified. It is not associated with the wear produced naturally or with any other physical damage, as with osteoarthritis.When white blood cells, which are designed to attack unwanted invaders, leave the blood and pass in the synovium *, where they cause inflammation of the membrane, one develops arthritis. White blood cells begin to attack these tissues, cartilage, casings leading to destruction of joints, with pain being particularly strong and sometimes impossible to move.



*Synovium = is the soft tissue that lines the non-cartilaginous surfaces within joints with cavities.
The synovial capsule is surrounded by the synovium and ligaments. It contains and produces a lubricant called synovitis, articular surface that facilitates sliding.Synovial fringes are physiological deformations protruding joint cavity and covers the gaps that form during certain movements. They can also be pathological hypertrophied due, for example, to a mechanic conflict or a subsequent proliferation of synovium, of tumoral or inflammatory origin.
Synovial sheath - This is a thin serous membrane surrounding the tendons (especially those bent and extensor muscles of the fingers and toes), allowing their fall.

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